GLOSSARY

Atherosclerosis

  • Atherosclerosis is a chronic medical condition where the artery wall thickens due to the accumulation of calcium and fatty material, such as cholesterol. This thickening, also called a plaque, partially blocks the flow of blood through the artery, increasing blood pressure and risk of a heart attack or stroke. It can involve both the heart and/or the blood vessels; when it affects the arteries of the heart, it is called coronary artery disease (CAD). The condition often goes undiagnosed for decades.

For additional information see:
http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/WhyCholesterolMatters/Atherosclerosis_UCM_305564_Article.jsp

Biomarker

  • In medicine, a biomarker is any substance, structure, or process that can be accurately and reproducibly measured, which predicts the incidence or outcome of disease.

For additional information see:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3078627/

Cardiovascular disease (CVD)

  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an umbrella term for any chronic disease that affects the cardiovascular system such as coronary artery disease, heart failure and stroke among others. CVD can involve both the heart and/or the blood vessels. A number of risk factors contribute to the development of the disease, including age, gender, diabetes, smoking, unhealthy eating habits including high alcohol, fat and sugar consumption, lack of physical exercise among others. CVD is currently the leading cause of death worldwide with more than 40 % of deaths in the EU attributed to them.

For additional information see:
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/

Coronary artery disease (CAD)

  • Coronary artery disease is form of atherosclerosis that affects the arteries of the heart.

For additional information see:
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/cad/

Framework Programme 7 (FP7)

  • The 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development is the EU’s main instrument for funding research in Europe. It ran from 2007 to 2013.

For additional information see:
http://ec.europa.eu/research/fp7/index_en.cfm

Genome wide association studies (GWAS)

  • Genome wide association studies (GWAS), is the use of high-throughput screening approaches on the genome to identify associations between genomic variations (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) and a particular disease that can be used to strategically develop concepts. GWAS experiments are primarily used to answer questions in complex disease, where a larger quantity of data needs to be reviewed.

For additional information see:
https://www.genome.gov/20019523

Hypercholesterolemia

  • Hypercholesterolemia is a medical condition characterized by high levels of cholesterol in the blood. High levels of blood cholesterol typically result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors including diet, exercise, and tobacco smoking. Long term, this condition can lead to atherosclerosis.

For additional information see:
http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/hypercholesterolemia

Hypertension

  • Hypertension is a chronic medical condition in which there is high blood pressure in the arteries. Over time, this stress can put someone at risk of coronary artery disease if left untreated. It is also a major risk factor for the development of stroke.

For additional information see:
http://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/

In silico

  • In silico is an expression commonly used to refer to an analysis that was performed using a computer simulation in the biological sciences. It was coined in analogy to the frequently used Latin expressions to experiments performed in vivo (in living organisms), in vitro (outside of living organisms) and in situ (performed in their original position) as computer modelling techniques have become more popular in recent years.

For additional information see:
http://mpkb.org/home/patients/assessing_literature/in_vitro_studies

Macrovascular disease

  • Macrovascular disease is a condition affecting any large blood vessels in the body. The most common macrovascular diseases are coronary disease affecting the heart, cerebrovascular disease affecting the brain, and peripheral vascular disease affecting the limbs.

For additional information see:
http://cph.sagepub.com/content/142/1_suppl/S32.extract

Myocardial infarction

  • A myocardial infarction, also known as a heart attack, takes place when the heart does not receive enough oxygen due to a lack of blood flow. Commonly, the flow of blood is blocked due to a plaque in the coronary arteries. Risk factors for developing a myocardial infarction include previous cardiovascular disease, age, tobacco smoking, high blood pressure, and diabetes, among others.

For additional information see:
http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/heart_attack.htm

Omics

  • Omics refers to a relatively new field of study focused on high-throughput biological sciences. The name results from the fact that high-throughput version of the biological study often ends in “-omics” such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, among others. Similarly, the suffix “-ome” is used to address the objects of large scale study of such fields (e.g. „genomics“refers to large scale studies of the „genome“, the complete set of genes; this also applies to proteomics or metabolomics, among others).

For additional information see:
http://www.nature.com/omics/about/index.html

Systems biology

  • Systems biology attempts to understand biological concepts from the level of the system instead of an individual molecule. Systems biology makes heavy use of high-throughput omics data (proteomics, genomics, etc.) and computational models.

For additional information see:
http://www.eisbm.org/

Systems medicine

  • Systems medicine implements systems biology, which looks at the dynamic systems of an organism as part of one integrated whole. Systems medicine additionally incorporates information from different branches of medicine in order to better translate new ideas to use in medicine and to the clinic.

For additional information see:
http://ec.europa.eu/research/health/large-scale/systems-medicine/index_en.html

Technology Transfer

  • Technology transfer is the transfer of information, skills, technologies, among others from researchers to a wider range of stakeholders who can further develop this information into new products, such as drugs.

For additional information see:
http://www.autm.net/Tech_Transfer/12759.htm

Vascular disease

  • Vascular disease is any condition that affects circulation, including diseases of the arteries, veins, and lymph vessels, blood disorders affecting circulation such as Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) that can lead to chest pain (angina pectoris) as well as a heart attack.

For additional information see:
http://my.clevelandclinic.org/heart/disorders/vascular/whatis.aspx

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